Römische Mitteilungen https://publications.dainst.org/journals/rm <p>Die Römischen Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts sind eine jährlich im Dezember zur Winckelmann-Adunanz erscheinende Zeitschrift. Sie fördern den internationalen wissenschaftlichen Austausch in den Bereichen Archäologie, Kunst und Architektur Italiens und angrenzender Gebiete. Die Zeitschrift versteht sich als Plattform für die Vorstellung und Diskussion der materiellen Kultur von der prähistorischen Zeit bis ins Frühmittelalter mit traditionellem Schwerpunkt auf der klassischen Antike. Veröffentlicht werden Beiträge von Einzelstudien bis zu Überblicken von Grabungsergebnissen, die ein doppeltes blindes Peer-Review-Verfahren durchlaufen haben.</p> <p><em>P-ISSN: 0342-1287 – E-ISSN: 2749-8891</em></p> de-DE Römische Mitteilungen 0342-1287 Die Glasperlen des 8. und 7. Jhs. v. Chr. aus Verucchio (Emilia-Romagna, Italien). https://publications.dainst.org/journals/rm/article/view/3969 <p>The presentation of glass beads from Verucchio, especially from recent excavations, serves to improve our knowledge of an often neglected genre of archaeological finds of the Early Iron Age in Italy. Glass beads of the 1<sup>st</sup> millennium BC are frequently listed as evidence of long-distance contacts, but are rarely studied and classified in detail. Seeing them oneself or at least good photographic evidence is necessary for their correct evaluation. The impact of analytical chemistry on this archaeological material is clearly increasing, though without the archaeological analyses and resulting questions about the chemistry having been fully worked out. The first part of this study presents the monochrome beads and those decorated with dot or ring eyes. It then sets them in their comparative contexts both in Italy and beyond. Finally, the state of research on glass chemistry, especially the colouring possibilities of the respective glasses, is set out. Thus, it becomes clear that certain bead forms remain restricted to the Bologna-Verucchio region, while others are scattered across Italy as well as occurring in the north-eastern adjoining regions of central Europe and the Aegean. In another later contribution, the remaining bead types, their chronological occurrence and their purpose in the graves will be discussed.</p> Leonie C. Koch Copyright (c) 2022 Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Römische Abteilung 2022-08-25 2022-08-25 128 8 41 10.34780/tf67-7tac Die archäologischen Untersuchungen 2016–2021 in Ascoli Satriano/Giarnera Piccola (Prov. Foggia/Apulien) https://publications.dainst.org/journals/rm/article/view/4029 <p>Recent archaeological investigations at Ascoli Satriano have shed new light on the pre-Roman occupation of northern Apulia (ancient Daunia). The findings document a long-term and locally consistent attachment to the core site of Giarnera Piccola from the 8<sup>th</sup> to the late 4<sup>th</sup> century BCE. A close relationship is discerned, both in time and space, of architectural structures and burials. The new local discoveries testify to the existence of this situation from the earliest hut structures onwards and show its persistence until the place’s abandonment. While the detection of new fragments of two Daunian stelae in a shaft/well points to early burial activities, the character of the entangled relationship still has to be scrutinized. Archaeometric and scientific analyses furthermore attest to activities in agriculture and in pottery production.</p> Christian Heitz Manuele Laimer Camilla Norman Kai Riehle Kathrin Schuchter Marlies Klee Hans Mommsen Copyright (c) 2023 Römische Mitteilungen 2022-11-18 2022-11-18 128 42 86 10.34780/3brb-d3f8 The Vase as a Stage? https://publications.dainst.org/journals/rm/article/view/4031 <p>In this paper, the problematic relationship between theatre and vase-painting is investigated by focusing on Assteas’ calyx-krater in Buccino. This depicts a parody of the rape of Kassandra. Since the scene has never before been the subject of an iconographic analysis, first a detailed comparison with other southern Italian depictions of the episode is expounded. Besides showing how Assteas’ example is rooted in the southern Italian tradition, all the visual elements that depart from the ‘canonical’ iconography of the rape are identified in order to better understand the <em>geloion</em>. This exercise also helps to challenge the assumption that the image’s origin lies in the treatment of the rape as found in drama. Comparing the Assteas fragment with the corpus of the phlyax vases, this article demonstrates how the former does not in fact represent a theatrical scene, as well as investigating how the comic effect was achieved differently in the visual field. Finally, an analysis of the literary sources entirely supports a non-theatrical origin for the parody, and instead reveals Assteas’ iconopoietic ability to use different comic devices.</p> Federico Figura Copyright (c) 2023 Römische Mitteilungen 2022-11-18 2022-11-18 128 88 113 10.34780/bz2g-3252 Tönerne Rundaltäre aus Sizilien https://publications.dainst.org/journals/rm/article/view/4028 <p>Cylindrical altars made of terracotta, called arulae, are common finds in Hellenistic Sicily. They were used there and in southern Italy from the late fourth to the first century BC. Their heyday is in the third century BC, as then they were gradually replaced by built altars in the second/first century BC. Arulae were most often found in domestic contexts and are much less frequently encountered in sanctuaries. Their size, weight and shape suggest that they were portable and could be used flexibly in different settings, and that they carried shallow ceramic bowls for making offerings (libations, food, or incense?). However, since they are usually found in a fragmentary condition, scholars have paid little attention to them. This paper provides the first comprehensive study of these altars from Sicily, focusing on their size, shape, decoration, typology, geographical and chronological distribution. Furthermore, their function and spatial contexts are discussed, with as special emphasis on the arulae found during recent excavations in the House of the Two Skeletons at Morgantina.</p> Thomas Lappi Copyright (c) 2023 Römische Mitteilungen 2022-11-18 2022-11-18 128 114 153 10.34780/bc77-oab7 Celtomachia apud Pydnam? https://publications.dainst.org/journals/rm/article/view/4026 <p>Among the Roman and Macedonian combatants peopling the battle frieze of the pillar of L. Aemilius Paullus at Delphi, three nude figures fighting on the losing side can be identified as Celts. As Celtic mercenaries played a negligible role in the battle at Pydna, this article holds that the Celtomachic motifs were included deliberately as an opportune pictorial code to represent and qualify the Aemilian victory to a Panhellenic audience. The three Celts specifically answered to the barbaricising Roman and Attalid pre-war propaganda aimed at the denigration of popular king Perseus, while also countering wide-spread anti-Roman sentiment, in kind revolving around the topos of barbarism.</p> Lukas Reimann Copyright (c) 2023 Römische Mitteilungen 2022-11-17 2022-11-17 128 154 182 10.34780/33mo-mdfj Bekrönte Giebel. https://publications.dainst.org/journals/rm/article/view/4025 <p>The so-called ‘pierced crestings’, attachments to the raking simas, form a well-known characteristic of Etrusco-Italic temple decorations in terracotta. Later, the motif is attested among the ‘Campana reliefs’ and in the stone architecture of the Roman provinces, but the evidence from Imperial Rome itself is very scarce. Hence, any presence in Imperial temple architecture initially seems to be a question of little importance. However, as this article argues, a significant number of architectural images should actually be understood as depicting such ‘pierced crestings’ and surviving well on into the 2<sup>nd</sup> century C.E. Starting with a section on the methodology involved, this article reviews anew the extant depictions of decorated temple pediments on historical reliefs and coins from the urbs. It then tries to track down the motif’s apparent religious connotations by examining the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on the Capitoline Hill. Finally, the article re-assesses the former importance of this old and conspicuous motif for Roman temples, which in Antiquity seems to have been tightly linked to expressing their majestic grandeur (possibly in the form of gilded appliques, as the appendix suggests).</p> Arne Reinhardt Copyright (c) 2023 Römische Mitteilungen 2022-11-17 2022-11-17 128 184 218 10.34780/368j-y6ud A Recently Discovered Republican Altar in the Centre of Ostia. https://publications.dainst.org/journals/rm/article/view/4030 <p>In this paper, the altar of a recently discovered sanctuary in the northeast of Ostia’s forum will be discussed. The altar can be characterised as a ‘ground altar’, a rather uncommon type associated with the worship of chthonic deities. Its key features include a platform with a central fire pit, a ramp, a drain, a sewer, and a ‘libation hole’. The paper gives an overview of the Ostia Forum Project’s surveys and excavations in the area, focusing on the building phases of the altar. It also provides insight into the stratigraphical development and the corresponding dating evidence. Preliminary results on the faunal remains are also included. Thereby are illustrated the functionality of the altar and the associated rituals. The altar is put into a broader context in relation to the sanctuary’s dimensions and thus, to the city’s grid-layout. The altar’s position in the centre of the precinct’s earliest layout might associate it with the foundation of the sacred area and possibly of the <em>castrum </em>of Rome’s first colony itself.</p> Axel Gering Sophie Menge Trine Bak Pedersen Copyright (c) 2023 Römische Mitteilungen 2022-11-18 2022-11-18 128 220 266 10.34780/p8yq-8dy3 Late Republican Baths in Italy. https://publications.dainst.org/journals/rm/article/view/4023 <p>The urban context and ownership of baths have long been recognized as closely interrelated key features behind publicly accessible baths, but have not been comprehensively investigated for the Late Republican/Hellenistic period examples in the Western Mediterranean. This paper examines these two features of urban baths in Italy that were built between ca. 200 and 31 BC. Based on epigraphic and archaeological sources 23 baths in 17 sites are identified, of which 17 sufficiently well preserved examples are discussed in more detail. The analysis uses a set of criteria to differentiate between publicly-owned and privately-owned complexes, including inscriptions, the urban location, insula context, design of façades, accessibility, and water supply. It is argued that 13 (or even 15) of the 17 baths were built at public initiative close to or at the Forum, and were accessible from main streets. When cities were remodelled and embellished in the Late Republican period, baths were apparently an integral part of the standard building set and the new cityscapes. Providing them became a public endeavour and an official task. Since baths were built in vastly different cultural and historical contexts, including various Italic settlements, Latin and Roman colonies, as well as municipia, they were not markers of a specific Roman identity and culture, but rather of a supra-regional urban identity and lifestyle.</p> Monika Trümper Copyright (c) 2023 Römische Mitteilungen 2022-11-16 2022-11-16 128 268 335 10.34780/cdad-z6k6 Colosseo. Il podio e il palco dell’imperatore. https://publications.dainst.org/journals/rm/article/view/4033 <p>Among the many questions still unanswered about the architectural articulation and functional modalities of some sectors of the Colosseum, the structure of the podium and of the two boxes for the highest authorities, placed frontally at both ends of the minor axis, are of particular importance. The reason for this lacuna is easily understandable: all that remains of the boxes is the empty space they originally occupied, while so little has been preserved of the podium as to make it problematic to even define its limits. On the basis of new graphic documentation and plans of the podium area made in 1812 by the architect Pietro Bianchi, who had already identified and reconstructed it graphically, a new reconstructive proposal can be made including the dimensions, extension and shape of the podium and the boxes on the minor axis.</p> Heinz-Jügen Beste Rosella Rea Copyright (c) 2023 Römische Mitteilungen 2022-11-18 2022-11-18 128 336 358 10.34780/izc6-l6zf The Jewish Catacomb at Vigna Randanini in Rome. https://publications.dainst.org/journals/rm/article/view/4032 <p>In this article, we present a fresh and comprehensive study of the Jewish catacomb at Vigna Randanini based on a thorough investigation of the architecture of this underground cemetery and of the archaeological materials it still contains. Having conducted a complete 3D-documentation of the monument with a Laserscanner, we first present a new and reliable plan for the site. We then use this as point of departure for a detailed architectural study in the course of which we identify four major consecutive building phases. Moving on to the wall paintings, we offer a full description and documentation, which we then contextualize by discussing the issue of possible Jewish ownership. Reviewing the funerary inscriptions from Vigna Randanini, we highlight the importance of studying these in their original topographical context, offering new insights into chronology and the importance of family burial. This is followed by a presentation of radiocarbon data that indicate that burial started somewhat earlier and continued longer than previously thought. In a final concluding section, we put all the data together and discuss how our findings impinge on our understanding of the topography, the chronology and the question of the religious affiliation of the monument. In an appendix we present a preliminary study of the tombs in Vigna Randanini, which we investigate from the perspective of historical demography.</p> Norbert Zimmermann Leonard V. Rutgers Eva Kodzoman Antonello Vilella Michael W. Dee Copyright (c) 2023 Römische Mitteilungen 2022-11-18 2022-11-18 128 360 431 10.34780/6cr2-27c3 I Borbone sul Palatino. https://publications.dainst.org/journals/rm/article/view/4024 <p>This article presents the results of new discoveries from the State Archive of Naples about the 130 year long era when the Bourbons owned the Farnese Gardens on the Palatine hill. Contrary to the widely held belief that it was a time of neglect and inattention, and thanks to several hitherto unknown documents found in the archive, this almost ignored period has turned out to be full of events and projects that involved not only the administration of cultivations but even maintenance and restoration of Renaissance and ancient Roman buildings. Excavation and research to unearth antiquities from the Palaces of the Emperors was also undertaken.</p> Valentina Santoro Barbara Sielhorst Lorenzo Terzi Copyright (c) 2023 Römische Mitteilungen 2022-11-17 2022-11-17 128 432 471 10.34780/076c-7aj6 Dimenticando i Longobardi. https://publications.dainst.org/journals/rm/article/view/4027 <p>In the existing syntheses on the history of Italian medieval archaeology, the interwar period is somewhat neglected. And this despite its importance as a key transitional moment as appreciated from the origins of the discipline in the 19th century to its (re) foundation in 1974. This study looks at the developments of ‘barbarian archaeology’ in Italy between the two world wars, by investigating protagonists and methods of the research and by taking into account the link between cultural heritage, local identity and national politics in Italy and Germany. In doing so, while confirming the lack of interest in Lombard-period discoveries on the part of Italian archaeologists and the contrasting fascination exerted by these discoveries on their German colleagues, the study sheds new light on the connections of medieval archaeology with two allied fields of study: the archaeology of monuments from the Ostrogothic period and the archaeology and art history from the early Christian age.</p> Annamaria Pazienza Copyright (c) 2023 Römische Mitteilungen 2022-11-18 2022-11-18 128 472 501 10.34780/6anh-3cca