Römische Mitteilungen https://publications.dainst.org/journals/rm <p>Die Römischen Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts sind eine jährlich im Dezember zur Winckelmann-Adunanz erscheinende Zeitschrift. Sie fördern den internationalen wissenschaftlichen Austausch in den Bereichen Archäologie, Kunst und Architektur Italiens und angrenzender Gebiete. Die Zeitschrift versteht sich als Plattform für die Vorstellung und Diskussion der materiellen Kultur von der prähistorischen Zeit bis ins Frühmittelalter mit traditionellem Schwerpunkt auf der klassischen Antike. Veröffentlicht werden Beiträge von Einzelstudien bis zu Überblicken von Grabungsergebnissen, die ein doppeltes blindes Peer-review-Verfahren durchlaufen haben.</p> <p><em>P-ISSN: 0342-1287 – E-ISSN: 2749-8891</em></p> de-DE Römische Mitteilungen 0342-1287 Vorwort der Herausgeber https://publications.dainst.org/journals/rm/article/view/3667 Ortwin Dally Norbert Zimmermann Copyright (c) 2021 Deutsches Archäologisches Institut 2021-10-19 2021-10-19 127 8–16 § 1–18 10.34780/7dy4-vg51 Die Halltstattkulturen und Italien während der älteren Eisenzeit https://publications.dainst.org/journals/rm/article/view/3660 <p>Through the discovery of luxury bronze vessels of Etruscan and in lesser numbers of Greek origin, scholarship had already realized around the middle of the 19th century that there must exist cultural contacts between the Mediterranean civilisations and the Celtic world in western Central Europe. Subsequent studies verified that the different groups comprising the Hallstatt culture were cross linked with the cultures in Upper and Central Italy; and that it was not only the Etruscans who involved their products in this exchange of goods, but also the Upper Italian cultures and the Picenes in eastern Central Italy, who both trafficked their products into Central Europe. It is noticeable that in the region northwest of the Alps it is mainly dress accessories and bronze vessels, which belong to sympotic activities for drinking wine, that were adopted. In contrast in the Eastern Hallstatt area weapons too were taken up. Not only luxury goods were involved, but also simple objects like fibulae, which made a much deeper impact in Central Europe. The adoption of early fibula-types and of figural art on metal vessels in the Alps and in Slovenia shows that the people in this area were earlier disposed to integrate southern influences in their own cultures, just as happened in the region north of the Alps. Here though the inhabitants in the 8th and 7th centuries BC were slower at accepting these innovations; only a little before 600 BC did they adopt the fibula-requiring costume in the upper Italian and inner alpine fashion. In the case of the figural art, the culture groups north of the Alps were much more conservative; not until the beginning of the La Tène-period in the 5th century BC did they accept something of figural art. In all these cases no "Mediterranization" of the central European cultures ever took place, but rather the contacts and the acquisition of prestige goods from the south promoted the development of powerful local elites, as we have recognized them in Styria, in south-western Germany and north-eastern France.</p> Markus Egg Copyright (c) 2021 Deutsches Archäologisches Institut 2021-10-19 2021-10-19 127 18–61 § 1–65 10.34780/x60c-xp66 Sulla periodizzazione delle necropoli protostoriche di Fermo https://publications.dainst.org/journals/rm/article/view/3664 <p>The site of Fermo, located in the southern part of the Marche region (central Adriatic Italy), has been the center of a lively scientific debate. Many scholars assert that during the Early Iron Age (9th–8th centuries BC) Fermo represents an enclave of the Villanovan culture (linked to the birth of the Etruscan ethnos) set in an area otherwise characterised by the Picene culture. The same scholars believe that in more recent periods (7th–6th centuries BC) the community of Fermo was completely absorbed within the Picene culture. Renato Peroni has proposed a different interpretation, according to which the ties between Fermo and the Villanovan centers arose rather from a similar protourban development. The current work proposes a new scheme of relative chronology for the site of Fermo, the outcome of a research project which has analysed a substantial number of unpublished tombs from the Misericordia and Mossa necropolises. The characteristics of each period (Fermo I, IIA, IIB, III, IVA, IVB, V) are illustrated through a selection of representative funerary contexts, which span from the 9th to the early 5th centuries BC. The paper illustrates the cultural evolution of the site both in its relationships with Middle Tyrrhenian and Po Valley regions and with the surrounding Middle Adriatic environment; new light is thereby shed on its cultural development in the 7th–6th centuries BC.</p> Pasquale Miranda Carmen Esposito Copyright (c) 2021 Deutsches Archäologisches Institut 2021-10-19 2021-10-19 127 62–109 § 1–41 10.34780/7gdb-fbu2 Ausgrabungen in der Kleinsiedlung Babunjë bei Apollonia (Albanien). https://publications.dainst.org/journals/rm/article/view/3666 <p>Field research at Babunjë, a small fortified settlement of ca. 5 ha lying between the Corinthian-Corcyraian colonies of Apollonia and Epidamnos, seeks to achieve a better understanding of the colonial settlement structure at the eastern coast of the southern Adriatic (and further south along the Ionian Sea). Babunjë was founded at the end of the 6th century BC and was abandoned in the last decades of the 4th century BC. The site had a fortification with a ‚bastion‘ or unusual large tower which was built some decades after Babunjë’s foundation. A planned urban layout shows long, narrow insulae with single rows of house-plots. A two-roomed house was excavated completely. Small settlements like Babunjë were, after the large colonies, most probably an important part of the colonial settlement structure on this coast.</p> Manuel Fiedler Bashkim Lahi Eduard Shehi Szilamér-Péter Pánczél Klodian Velo Gregor Döhner Copyright (c) 2021 Deutsches Archäologisches Institut 2021-10-19 2021-10-19 127 110–144 § 1–41 10.34780/aheb-768e The Capitoline Temple of Jupiter. https://publications.dainst.org/journals/rm/article/view/3668 <p>It is generally assumed that the temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus was hexastyle, colossal, and occupied a rectangular platform consisting of a grid of cappellaccio walls that matched the measurements provided by Dionysius of Halicarnassus. Yet neither the Greek historian nor any other sources provide this information explicitly. We argue for a smaller, yet still huge, Capitoline temple that occupied one sector of the platform and was eventually framed by a colonnaded portico. The plan of our Tuscan temple matches the surviving foundations, is in accordance with Vitruvius and other sources, and follows the principles of Roman architecture. Its elevation takes into account the latest investigations and the recent finds of terracotta revetments from the Capitoline temple, is consistent with its depictions on coins and marble reliefs, and is supported by the first structural verification of the imperial entablature ever made to date. Finally we re-assess the cultural exchanges between Rome, Etruria, and the broader Mediterranean area in the light of the new reconstruction.</p> Karolina Kaderka Pier Luigi Tucci Copyright (c) 2021 Deutsches Archäologisches Institut 2021-10-19 2021-10-19 127 146–187 § 1–40 10.34780/09q1-1e01 Novae scalpturae. https://publications.dainst.org/journals/rm/article/view/3671 <p>This contribution investigates the spread of capitals characterized by a Kyma recta echinus in the central-southern area of the Italic peninsula. The typology had been growing in popularity, and especially so since the second half of the 2nd century B.C.: it has often been labelled “tuscanico”. From innovative research on these same capitals in the Asia Minor area, especially from Pergamon, it has been possible to work out how this type of capital first developed within the process of Hellenization taking place since the middle of the 2nd century B.C., and then entered Late Republican architecture. It is therefore necessary to no longer call such capitals “tuscanico”. It is more likely that they should be viewed as variations of Doric capitals, the result of the extensive phenomenon of reformulation and mixing of architectural orders that is especially true of the Hellenistic age. Finally, we highlight the success that the Kyma recta capitals went on to enjoy, especially in the Augustan and in the middle Julio-Claudian ages.</p> Lorenzo Kosmopoulos Copyright (c) 2021 Deutsches Archäologisches Institut 2021-10-19 2021-10-19 127 188–218 § 1–36 10.34780/6298-0622 Der Brunnen der Republikanischen Thermen in Pompeji. https://publications.dainst.org/journals/rm/article/view/3674 <p>The water supply of late Republican baths has received little attention in scholarship. These baths were commonly not supplied by aqueducts, but by cisterns, wells, and reservoirs which often do not survive and are therefore poorly understood. This paper seeks to fill this gap by investigating one well-preserved case study. These are the Republican Baths in Pompeii that were built around 150 BC and abandoned around 30/25 BC, that is to say before the public baths in Pompeii were supplied by the city aqueduct. Based on recent excavations and an architectural survey it is now known that the Republican Baths were supplied by a deep well originally dug in the 3rd century BC (Phase 0), and later integrated into the baths around 150 BC (Phase 1); it was once significantly remodelled during the life-time of the baths (Phase 2). Based on a detailed analysis of the architectural remains, the water lifting devices, their operation and capacities are reconstructed for Phases 1 and 2. The well was operated by a bucket-chain powered by a treadwheel in Phase 1; it was enlarged and equipped with a new lifting device powered by a capstan in Phase 2, which was twice as efficient as the former one.</p> Thomas Heide Copyright (c) 2021 Deutsches Archäologisches Institut 2021-10-19 2021-10-19 127 220–253 § 1–61 10.34780/6xja-xid2 Il 'comitium' e il foro di Pompei fra tarda repubblica e età imperiale. https://publications.dainst.org/journals/rm/article/view/3675 <p>The ‘<em>comitium</em>’ at the southeast corner of the forum of Pompeii has since its uncovering at the beginning of the 19th century mostly been referred to as a political building, which probably developed shortly before or as a consequence of the founding of the colony after 80 BC. Geophysical investigations in 2015 and subsequent excavations in the years 2017 to 2019, however paint a different picture: in the late Republican period, a series of tabernae stood in this area, facing both the Via dell’Abbondanza and the forum portico, which at that time had only one nave. The ‘comitium’, on the other hand, was built only in the Augustan period and is to be understood as a prestigious extension of the forum, which may have served, among other things, for legal acts. Subsequent repairs and changes in the building stock, which may have been caused by the earthquake of 62 AD, and the destruction of the city in 79 AD were followed by the removal of the original marble floor and the marble wall cladding, which could be partially reconstructed in the finds.</p> Manuel Flecker Johannes Lipps Copyright (c) 2021 Deutsches Archäologisches Institut 2021-10-19 2021-10-19 127 254–289 § 1–48 10.34780/avyd-p19l Un rilievo da Roma agli Uffizi. https://publications.dainst.org/journals/rm/article/view/3673 <p>The object of this paper is a Roman relief discovered in Rome and now exhibited at the Galleria degli Uffizi in Florence. Although the relief has been known since the Renaissance, its provenance, chronology and interpretation are still a matter of debate. The first part of this study retraces the modern history of the relief, from the Villa Medici Collection to the Uffizi, through the examination of the antiquarian, iconographic and archival sources. Then attention is devoted to the archaeological study. The scene depicts the sacrifice of a bull, performed by the victimarii, in the presence of a togatus, two children holding a shield, a personification and, significantly, a palm tree. The paper offers a stylistic and iconographic analysis and an explanation of the relief, hitherto poorly investigated.</p> Francesca D'Andrea Copyright (c) 2021 Deutsches Archäologisches Institut 2021-10-19 2021-10-19 127 290–321 § 1–76 10.34780/06af-h96c “da niuna cura accompagnato fuori che quella di scoprire antiche cose”. https://publications.dainst.org/journals/rm/article/view/3676 <p>Hitherto unpublished reports of the excavations by the Società Vincenzo Campanari – Governo Pontificio at Vulci found at the German Archaeological Institute in Rome provide an important contribution to the better understanding of the early excavations at Vulci, their temporal and spatial progress, the dissemination of the finds, and the mechanisms of the art market in the late 1830s. The reports – signed by Domenico Campanari and addressed to Karl Josias von Bunsen – span the entire second excavation season between November 9th 1835 and May 28th 1836 both on the plateau of the Etrusco-Roman city and in the necropolis. We have been able to identify a group of 37 objects in various European and non-European museums and collections and connect them with the excavations of the Campanaris in Vulci. It was thus possible outline the lively network of antiquarians, scholars and collectors within which the Campanaris operated and for whom scientific and commercial interests appeared complementary.</p> Mariachiara Franceschini Paul P. Pasieka Copyright (c) 2021 Deutsches Archäologisches Institut 2021-10-19 2021-10-19 127 322–374 § 1–104 10.34780/g2l3-4kzl